Che questi Kurgan o Jamna fossero stati gli iniziatori della civiltà pastorale guerriera non sussisterebbero dubbi… Una curiosità nel nord dell’India tuttora esiste un fiume sacro chiamato Jamna… La cultura di Jamna (circa 3500-2500 avanti era volgare) secondo i ricercatori fu una cultura nomadica, sorta tra Caspio e Ponto, caratterizzata dalle inumazioni nei famosi kurgan (tumuli).
La cultura di Jamna (circa 3500-2500 avanti era volgare) si sviluppò nella tarda Età neolitica, fu una cultura nomadica delle steppe, tra Caspio e Ponto, caratterizzata dalle inumazioni nei famosi kurgan (tumuli). Viene identificata come nucleo ancestrale di formazione delle lingue proto-indoeuropee parlate dagli Indoeuropei originari, gli Ariani o Ari, provenienti dall’area del Caucaso, probabilmente tra la fine del neolitico e l’inizio dell’Età del Rame. (Paolo D’Arpini)
- Also known as the Yamnaya Culture, Pit Grave Culture or Ochre Grave Culture.
- Generally considered by linguists as the homeland of the Proto-Indo-European language.
- Probably originated between the Lower Don, the Lower Volga and North Caucasus during the Chalcolithic, around what became the Novotitorovka culture (3300-2700 BCE) within the Yamna culture.
- Highly mobile steppe culture of pastoral nomads relying heavily on cattle (dairy farming). Sheep were also kept for their wool. Hunting, fishing and sporadic agriculture was practiced near rivers.
- First culture (along with Maykop) to make regular use of ox-drawn wheeled carts. Metal artefacts (tools, axes, tanged daggers) were mostly made of copper, with some arsenical bronze. Domesticated horses used as pack animal and ridden to manage cattle herds.
- Coarse, flat-bottomed, egg-shaped pottery decorated with comb stamps and cord impressions.
- The dead were inhumed in pit graves inside kurgans (burial mounds). Bodies were placed in a supine position with bent knees and covered in ochre. Wagons/carts and sacrificed animals (cattle, horse, sheep) were present in graves, a trait typical of later Indo-European cultures.
Samples from the Volga region
- KAL : Kalinovka I, Samara Oblast (Middle Volga), Russia
- NIK : Nikolaevka III, Samara Oblast (Middle Volga), Russia
- POD : Podlesnyj, Samara Oblast (Middle Volga), Russia
Samples from the Don and Kuban regions
- OLE : Olennii, Krasnodar Krai (Sea of Azov), Russia
- PEJ : Peschanyi, Rostov Oblast, Russia
Samples from central and eastern Ukraine
- PES : Pestchanka II, central eastern Ukraine
- SUG : Kirovograd Sugokleya, central Ukraine
- VIN : Vinogradnoe, southern central Ukraine
Samples from western Ukraine & Moldova
- MAJ : Mayaki, southwest Ukraine
- TET : Tetcani, northern Moldova
Samples from Bulgaria
- OVI : Ovchartsi, south-east Bulgaria
- POP : Popovo, south-east Bulgaria
- RIL : Riltsi, north-east Bulgaria